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What is pain?


According to the International Pain Studies Association, pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage.



*According to duration

Acute pain: postoperative and trauma pain

Chronic pain: 3-6 month long term cancer pain, neuropathic pain, etc.


*According to etiology

Cancer pain

Arthritic pain

Postherpetic neuralgia

Postoperative pain

Sickle cell anemia linked to pain et al.


*According to mechanism

Nociceptive Pain

Somatic Pain: Sudden, sharp, good localized; trauma, fracture, dislocation

Visceral Pain: blunt, slow character. Originates in the internal organs.Difficult to localize

Sympathetic Pain: burning sensation, is characterized by trophic disorders of the extremities.

Neuropathic pain: disc herniation, diabetic neuropathy,

Psychogenic Pain


* According to the pain area



Neck pain

Low back pain

Pelvic pain


Pain Assessment:

Pain is a highly subjective perception, personal, cultural, ethnic, and is influenced by psychological factors. The meter to the various methods have been developed:

* Uni-dimensional methods

Catagory scale:  paient is asked to describe the pain severity.

Numerical scale (NRS-Numerical rating scale): Patient is asked to scale pain between 0-10 or 0-100

Visual analogue scale (VAS):Patient is asked to mark on a 10cm line, where one end expresses no pain and the other end expresses excruciating pain.

* Multidimensional methods: Is a method to evaluate sensory,affective and the severity of the pain . As an example,the McGill Pain Questionnaire, West Haven Pain Inquiry Form,can be accepted as a Short pain inquiry form.


Treatment: the purpose of treatment, must be the priority of pain treatment


Treatment methods:

* Pharmacological approaches: painkillers

* Physical methods: hot application, cold application, massage, pressure and vibration, exercise, change positions, immobilization

* Surgical methods

* Psychosocial methods: Cognitive and behavioral approaches, relaxation, hypnosis, cognitive reflection and shaping, patient education, psychotherapy

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